Acute aortic dissection is a potentially life-threatening condition among patients presenting with chest pain to emergency department. Without a prompt diagnosis and treatment, it carries high mortality and morbidity. Computed tomography (CT) of thorax and abdomen is one of the commonly used non-invasive investigation modalities for diagnosis of acute aortic dissection. Apart from making a diagnosis, there are a number of parameters in the CT images that may be helpful in providing prognostic information. In this study, prognostic values of these parameters in predicting both short term and intermediate term clinical outcomes of acute aortic dissection will be evaluated. Methods and Results
This is a retrospective observational study involving 70 patients with diagnosis of acute aortic dissection recruited between January 2004 and December 2009 in North District Hospital. The mean age of these patients was 61 years old and 87% of them were male. The in-hospital mortality was 18.6% (13/70). And the 30 days mortality was 24.3% (17/70). The mean maximal aortic diameter of all patients was 4.60 cm +/- 1 cm. The mean maximal aortic diameter of the survived group was 4.49 cm +/- 0.93 cm, whereas it was 5.22 cm +/- 1.22 cm in the deceased group (p = 0.032). Furthermore, the presence of patent false lumen (p = 0.011) in the initial scan was also more prevalent in the deceased group. By logistic regression analysis, the type of aortic dissection (OR 11.0, p = 0.003), the larger maximal aortic diameter (OR 2.0, p = 0.041), and
also patent false lumen (OR 6.6, p = 0.021) in the initial imaging were adverse prognostic predictors to both short term and intermediate term clinical outcomes. Conclusion
In addition to establishing the diagnosis of acute aortic dissection, the type of aortic dissection, the maximal aortic diameter, and also the patency of false lumen derived from contrast CT thorax and abdomen also provided prognostic information with regards to in-hospital and 30 days mortality. Whether this information will lead to better clinical outcomes by earlier intervention require further studies for validation.
Eleanor Wei Sze LEE, Kwok Hin YIU, Willis Chun Wai LAM, Cyrus Yiu Kwan KO, Sung Yee WONG, Kin Wing CHAN, Usefulness of Computed Tomography Parameters in Predicting the Clinical Outcomes of Acute Aortic Dissection Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology 2022;29(2):53-61 https://doi.org/10.55503/2790-6744.1210
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