Over the last 5 decades, pacemaker therapy has undergone remarkable technological advances with increasing sophistication of pacemaker features. However, device longevity has remained one of the major issues in pacemaker design ever since the first endocardial pacing lead implantation in 1958. In addition to various hardware design to enhance device longevity, software-based solutions to minimize pacing energy and yet with good safety margin have also been developed. Together with desire and need of fully automatic pacing system in increasingly busy pacemaker clinic, several manufacturers have introduced different automatic threshold management algorithm. This article summarizes the current state of art in pacing threshold management in the modern pacemakers.
Chung-Wah Siu, Chu-Pak Lau, Pacing Technology: Advances in Threshold Management Journal of the Hong Kong College of Cardiology 2010;18(1) https://doi.org/10.55503/2790-6744.1060