Article Title

Thyrotoxic Heart Disease


The close link between the thyroid gland and the heart has been well recognized since the first description of thyrotoxicosis in nearly 200 years ago. Despite this well known association, there have been only a few population based studies performed on thyrotoxic heart disease except thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. Even so, there has not been any consensus for the definition for "thyrotoxic heart disease". For other cardiac manifestations of thyrotoxicosis including thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy and thyrotoxic pulmonary hypertension, only occasion case reports can be found in the current medical literatures. Their natural history, clinical course and outcomes are largely unknown. On the other hands, there is an enlarging body of evidence suggesting a direct pathogenic role of thyrotoxicosis per se as the sole cause of these thyrotoxic heart diseases. In this review, we briefly discuss the three cardiac consequences of thyrotoxicosis, namely atrial fibrillation, congestive cardiac failure and pulmonary hypertension.